ELTE Faculty of Social Sciences

Ethnic and Minority Studies

Academic Year of 2013/2014

Fall Semester

KIPA 102 The History of Ethnic, Religious and National Minorities

National Identity



Instructor

György Csepeli

 

Time

Wednesday 12.00-13.30

Place

Room 0.100A



Course description

The course will begin with a review of the literature on national identity that is among the most fascinating problems in the field of social sciences. Being national human beings focus all aspects of human life including anthropology, history, sociology, economic, political science and social psychology. The course would continue with the discussion of primary groups demonstrating how „Gemeinschaft” type of group feelings such as ethnocentrism endure in the phase of „Gesellschaft” as well. Different patterns of the development of nation states will be presented such as constitutional, cultural and political nation states. Based on recent comparative studies of national identity structures and contents of the stock of national knowledge will be presented such as the semantic universe stemming from the the name of the national group, the typifications and the relevances, values and ideologies. The course will provide a detailed analyses of the impact of the globalization and the new information technology on national identity. Finally, the prospect of a world republic will be investigated.

Requirements

Class attendance. Midterm test. Final exam. Submitting a paper on a topic related to the course (10-12 pages, double space).

Schedule

 

IX.12

Theories of the nation

Two types of the theories of the nations will be investigated and compared. On the one hand there are theories of the nation that emphasize the primordial, ethnocentric roots of the national affiliation. On the other hand, there are the theories that consider the nations as a consequence of modernization.

Reading

Anderson, B. 1983. Imagined Communities.London:Verso

Gellner, E. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. London: Basic Blackwell.

Smith, A.1983.  Theories of Nationalism. New York: Holmes and Meier

Hobsbawm, E.J. 1990. Nations and Nationalism since 1780. Programme, Myth, Reality.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press



IX.19

Gemeinschaft” and „Gesellschaft”

Human beings living in „Gemeinschaft” lack the differentiation of social relations creating the room for individual liberty. „Gesellschaft” in contrast creates masses of free individuals who in order to reduce their existential anxiety are to resort to the certainties offered by the nation.

Reading

Smith, A. 1996. The Origins of Nations. In Eley, G., Suny, G. (eds.) Becoming National. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 106-131.



IX.26

The state and the nation

The state has existed much before the nation. As a result of modernization states have been become „nation-states”

Reading

Hroch, M. 1996. From National Movement to the Fully-Formed Nation: The Nation-Building Process in Europe. In Eley, G., Suny, G. (eds.) 1996. Becoming National. Oxford. Oxford University Press.  60-78.

Spruyt, H. 1994. The Sovereign State and its Competitors. Princeton: Princeton University Press.



X.3.

Varieties of nation building

Modern nations can be differentiated according to the political or cultural priorities of nation building. Political nations were established on the pre-existing foundations of the state while the political existence of the cultural nations was preceded by the wish to exist as a nation state.

Modern nations can be differentiated according to the political or cultural priorities of nation building. Political nations were established on the pre-existing foundations of the state while the political existence of the cultural nations was preceded by the wish to exist as a nation state.

Reading

Greenfeld, L.1992. Five Roads to Modernity.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press

Helgerson, R. 1992. Forms of Nationhood. The Elizabethan Writing of England. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.



X.10

The national semantic universe

Heidegger states that language is the House of Being. Consequently, national reality takes shape under the condition of the language spoken by the members of the nation.  To provide an analysis of national consciusness Hawthorne refers to the „National Symbolic” whose reign produces the „Homeland”with its icons, metaphors, heroes, rituals and narratives.

Reading

Berlant, L. 1991. The Anatomy of National Fantasy. Hawthorne, Utopia, and Everyday Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.



X.17

The stock of the national knowledge

Structures and contents of the national identity taken together form the stock of national knowledge including categorization, typifications, relevances, thematizations. („Ethnic Creed” .)

Reading

Csepeli, Gy. 1997. National Identity in Contemporary Hungary. Highland Lakes: Atlantic Research and Publications. Distributed  Columbia University Press.  43-102. 129-216.

Hunyady, Gy. 1998. Stereotypes during the Decline and Fall of Communism. Routledge:London and New York. 219-275,



X. 23

National Holiday

 

X. 30

Vacation



XI. 6.

The national construction of reality

Nations are constructed not only by material realities but also by cultural patterns and choices of self-identification. The transition from cultural self-assertion to territorial demands will be discussed, so is the tendency that all culture is seen and cultivated as ’national” culture.

Reading

Gerő, A. 2006. Imagines History. Chapters from Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Hungarian Symbolic Politics. Wayne, N.J.: Center for Hungarian Studies and Publications, Inc. Distributed by Columbia University Press. 153-212.

Leerssen, J. 2006. National Thought in Europe. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press



XI. 13

Sociology of national identity

The distribution of the elements of the stock of national knowledge varies as a function of the social stratification. The distribution of the emotions and sentiments connected to national identity is more widespread in the society in contrast with the  distribution of the cognitive contents and factual knowledge.

Reading

Csepeli, Gy. 1997. National Identity in Contemporary Hungary. Highland Lakes: Atlantic Research and Publications. Distributed  Columbia University Press.  103-126.



XI.20

Film



XI.27

Nationalism

Generally, nationalism refers to the phenomenon that society including the elite and the population feel that the state they live in should be the state of their nation. Nationalism, consequently is s scheme, vision of collective uniqueness fulfilling the needs of identification on behalf of the individuals as members of the nation.

Reading 

Nationalism. Theoretical and historical perspectives. Ashgate. 1-36.

Kohn, H. 1955. Nationalism. Van Nostrand Co



XII.4

Historical patterns of national development

The three historical regions of Europa according to István Hajnal, István Bibó and Jenő Szűcs. The role of the „small circles of liberty” in the formation of the modern nation states. Core, center and periphery. The case of the United Stares of America,

Reading

Hagendoorn, L., Pepels, J. European Nations and Natonalism: An Itroductory Aanalysis. In Hagendoorn, L., Csepeli, Gy., Dekker, H., Farnen, R.  2000, European Nations and

Szűcs, J. 1988. Three historical regions of Europe. In Keane, J. (ed.)Civic Society and the State. London. Verso. 291.332.



XII. 11

National stereotypes

Stereotypes are emotionally loaded generalizations of characteristics attributed to groups of people that precede, direct and filter information. National stereotypes consequently are assumptions about traits of national-ethnic groups. Auto-stereotypes about the traits of the national in-groups while heterostereotypes are assumptions about traits of national out-groups. The dominant dimensions the the national stereotypes are morality and competence.

Reading

Hunyady, Gy. 1998. Stereotypes during the Decline and Fall of Communism. Routledge:London and New York. 1-69.